A Younger World

Everyone says that the world is getting smaller, but it is also getting younger.

No longer do you have to have age on your side, you don’t have to have maturity that comes with years, and you don’t even have to have a fully developed brain. Teenagers, much to the disgust of the older generations, are inheriting the earth. No longer is age required to “make it”, or crack “the big time”.

Just last week, Nick D’Aloisio sold his app, Summly, to Yahoo! for a price that had enough zeroes to make anyone weak at the knees. This isn’t particularly interesting, until you reveal that Mr D’Aloisio is 17. In interviews with leading newspapers from around the world he said his investors, or business partners – including Ashton Kutcher, Rupert Murdoch, Stephen Fry and Li Ka-Shing – didn’t really mind that he was “only 17”; he had the brain, and the idea, and that was all that mattered.

No longer are we teenagers bound to going to school and then on to university if we want to make it and crack the big time. We can achieve it with a good idea and and a computer in our bedroom.

The idea of a “Younger World” does come with its risks. We need to be careful that we don’t become ignorant of experience earnt through age, and maturity that also comes with years and life experience. But if we teenagers keep our heads switched on and respect our elders’ advice, it will make for some exciting times.

Scarily, we’ll be able to challenge the establishment in more obvious ways. We’ll be able to expose our new, young ideas with great ease. Far from challenging the establishment, we may well be able to become part of it.

It gives us greater power and the ability to position ourselves in the world earlier than generations past. We just need to remember to be careful – and then get on with being creative and leaving our mark on the world.

The 21st Century is the Asian Century


This essay was written in September 2012, and there may be elements in it which have dated already. The main points, however, stand true.

It seems certain that many governments around the world are positive that it is no longer a question of whether it is the Asian century or whether it is not, it seems to them that it is a question of how do we prepare. The Australian Government has commissioned a White Paper on Australia in the Asian Century, due to be released later this year. The United States appears to realise too that the twenty first century is the Asian Century, illustrated in US President Obama’s speech to the Australian Parliament last year (Obama, 2011). The West relies on Asia for almost all of its electronic devices, a reliance that is helping to prevent Asia from going backwards in economic growth.

Questions are raised as Asia grows. China’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate, for example, was 3.3 times larger than the US’ in 2011 (Fedec and Sousa, c. 2012). Will traditional alliances between countries remain the same, or will changes be made? Security, too, for many countries is at the front of their minds as Asia spends more and more on their defence forces and nuclear weapons’ programs; possibly soft politics on Asia’s part. Will Asia rise to the top peacefully, or does mild unrest in the region at the moment suggest that it won’t be as pacific as the name of the ocean next to it?

As Asia grows they are looking to expand. Private companies and consortiums are buying foreign farm land in capitalist ventures. Foreign investment in Australia continues to grow, and we question whether we should sit back and let this happen. If we do stop it will we just be getting in the way of progress and the full force of the inevitable Asian Century?

In a speech to the Australian House of Representatives, US President Barack Obama said that “Here among close friends I would like to address the larger purpose of my visit to this region: our efforts to advance security, prosperity and human dignity across the Asia-Pacific. … [In the] United States [we] are turning our attention to the vast potential of the Asia-Pacific region” (2011, p 12847). This suggests that the US looks to possibly exploit what Asia, as it grows, has to offer. Perhaps, too, it suggests that US is the largest debtor nation (CNBC.com, c 2012). It suggests also that the US is still trying to cling to the prosperity and power that it enjoyed during the twentieth century. In April last year, in The Economist newspaper, an editorial appeared suggesting that Mr Obama was trying to maintain America’s economic position so that it could out-compete China and Asia to remain the dominant world power (The Economist, 2011). This all suggests that America is refusing to accept that they’re losing to Asia, but are trying to make out that in fact they do accept shift.

A Western reliance on Asian manufactured electronic goods is starting to benefit the country of origin. The Asian companies that make the electronics that we here in the West all like to have, make astronomical amounts of money. During the global financial crisis most of us would have bought some electronics, and Asia remained strong through this period.

While governments are perhaps in denial of an Asian Century the media is not. In a recent television broadcast of sci-fi classic, the BBC’s Doctor Who, an Indian space agency was featured prominently. In the story, this space agency— obviously made out to be a spoof of the USA’s NASA—had control of missiles to prevent an alien space craft from crashing into earth. This story-line was set in the future, but not a long way off. It can easily be read as a suggestion that the US is no longer going to be the leader in space exploration and space control. In real life

the Indian space agency has been around since the beginning of the Russian-US space-race, but have you heard of it? Has it featured prominently on global media? Did they land on the moon? No. But the allusion to India as a leading power in space in fiction, suggests that their current activities are going to get them there.

In Australia our culture is currently most controlled by the US. Will an increasingly Asian dominated century change that? Elisabeth Tarica has said in the Melbourne Age newspaper that business leaders and academics have long pushed for increased Asian language study (Tarica, 2011). Currently a predominantly monolingual society (Tarica, 2011), a move to a more multilingual society would suggest a move in our cultural influences. The US too seems also to be a mostly single-language speaking nation. If we do move to a multilingual society speaking Asian languages, it suggests that Asia’s cultural influence has gained and surpassed the level of America’s. Speaking an Asian language would be a hallmark of an Asian Century.

The GFC hit the West hard, partly because that’s where it originated. China, and the rest of Asia were less affected by this downturn, which was confined largely to Europe, and their GDP in fact grew in 2009; the US’s GDP did not grow in this same period (Sedghi, 2012). Growth in this area of the world goes to further suggest that the Asian Century is nigh, or has in fact begun. Growth in this difficult period highlights that Asia can, and most likely will perform; that they can grow and that they can become world dominant.

It may be thought that the Asian Century is a return to power, a power that it enjoyed before colonisation. In the 1700s, about sixty per cent of world economic production came from Asia (Irvine, 2012). This figure declined for eighty years, but since 1950, has continued to grow (Australian Government, 2012). This growth continues into the twenty first century, as the West’s world output continues to dwindle. The ability to say that a century belongs to any one nation, or groups of nations has only come about with full exploration of the globe, and a global economy. Centuries ago, when China and Asia were inventing paper and at the forefront of science, the Westerners—those who happen to write most of our history books—didn’t have a clue what was going on in the East. It didn’t matter that the East could well have been outstripping the West, the writers of history of the East didn’t know, so could quite happily say that the West was “the world leader”, something especially easy to say when the West is considered to be the whole world. Even though the West is still writing histories, they can’t really turn a blind eye to what is going on in the East anymore. They have to take notice or risk being called idiots. Now that Asia is coming back as a power, after shutting themselves away for many years from the rest of the world, we can see that they’re a world leader, and can be a world leader. And we can see that they’re becoming a world leader once more.

Traditionally Australia has been an ally to America; the most noted example is the Vietnam War. America started it and Australia joined despite public backlash. Now, however, China is also our friend. If America went to war with China, whose side are we on? If we’re against China we’re against nuclear weapons. If we’re against America we’re against nuclear weapons. We’re in a peculiar pickle if the situation does arise. As Asia becomes the world leader in this, the Asian Century, will they do it peacefully?

As I write Pakistan is witnessing violent protests over a video made in America that mocks the prophet Mohammed. Unrest in this way could lead to violence in Asia—home to a hoard of nuclear weapons. Violence in Asia might mean that America, as it is known to do, goes in to fight an unwinnable war in an attempt to control the place. If they do that we have to choose where we stand; do we do a Switzerland and just defend our borders, or do we side with someone? Presently, there are US troops up in the top end of Australia (Obama, 2011). If a nasty little war breaks out with an Asian country we’ll most likely side with our good friends in America. We will then be up against the dominant world power in this century, a dominant world power with immense defence spending budgets. For example, in 2011 China spent around 92 billion US dollars on defence, and most people know that they have nuclear weapons. The Americans spent around

684 million US dollars in 2009 on defence (Department of Defense US, 2009), but remember, they’re currently fighting in wars. China is not. China is spending money that it has. America is spending money that it doesn’t have. This just suggests that Asia’s military interests all around staple them at the top of the world’s page.

Recently, Cubbie Station—the largest privately owned irrigation property in the Southern Hemisphere—was sold to a consortium, the largest stakeholder in which is Chinese (Swan, 2012). Asia has the resources to expand into other countries, and if other countries are letting them do that then they’re riding down easy street to being world dominant. Not only will they buy Australian Cotton, but they’ll own the land that it is grown on. In a recent self-published magazine, Dick Smith shows us that many of our food companies are foreign owned. Among them are Dairy Farmers, owned by a Japanese company, Sunbeam, owned by the Chinese, and Safcol, owned by the Malaysians (2011). If Asian companies are smart enough to buy our companies and make a profit, helping their local economies, then we’re heading towards an age of Asian control, we’re heading towards and Asian century.

As the West dwindles amid economic uncertainty and continues to rely on Asian electronics to run their consumer lifestyles, the Asians will come out on top. The Chinese, Japanese, Indians; there are the world policy makers of the future. Their increasing control in countries other than their own shows that they will become the ones that the West answers to. The West might struggle to cling to power, but they must concede defeat in the face of a new time. A new time that will have benefits, especially for Asia, but will also have downsides, of which are unavoidable. It is a time of change. The East holds dear that the only constant in the world is change, and it needs to be the West that realises the change is in the direction of the Asian Century. The Asian Century is the twenty first century.


Anon, 2011. Angst in the United States: What’s wrong with America’s economy? | The Economist.

The Economist. Available at: <http://www.economist.com/node/18620710> [Accessed: 23

September 2012].

Anon, 1996. Science and Technology. . Available at:

<http://www.indianembassy.org/dydemo/science.htm> [Accessed: 22 September 2012].

Anon, Submission_to_Asian_Century_White_Paper.pdf. . Available at:

<http://www.mallesons.com/Documents/Submission_to_Asian_Century_White_Paper.pdf> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

Australian Government, 2011. What is happening in Asia [Online]. Available at:

<http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/issues-paper/what-is-happening-in-asia> [Accessed: 22

September 2012].

CNBC.com, 2012. The World’s Biggest Debtor Nations [Online]. Available at:

<http://www.cnbc.com/id/30308959/> [Accessed: 25 September 2012].

Colebatch, T. 2012. The ‘Asian Century’ may not be that good. The Sydney Morning Herald.

Available at: <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/the-asian-century-may-not-be-that- good-20120919-266xp.html> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

Commonwealth of Australia 2011. 2011 Defence economic trends in the Asia-Pacific. . Available at: <http://www.defence.gov.au/dio/documents/DET_11.pdf> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

Department of Defense United States, 2009, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. . Available at:

<www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BUDGET-2011-BUD/pdf/BUDGET-2009-BUD-11.pdf> [Accessed:

23 September 2012].

Eichengreen, B. 2012. China’s century or America’s? East Asia Forum. Available at:

<http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/04/15/china-s-century-or-america-s/> [Accessed: 15 April


Fedec, A. and Sousa, A. 2012. GDP Growth Rates, List by Country [Online]. Available at:

<http://www.tradingeconomics.com/gdp-growth-rates-list-by-country> [Accessed: 25

September 2012].

Horsley (ed), E.M. 1986. Asia. Hutchinson Factfinder Concise Enyclopedia 1, p. 55. Irvine, J. 2012. Humanity key to business in Asian century. The Sunday Telegraph, p. 92. Jayaraman, K.S. 2011. Indian Space Budget Boost Supports Existing Programs. Space News.

Available at: <http://www.spacenews.com/civil/110301-indian-space-budget-boost.html>

[Accessed: 22 September 2012].

Leigh, A. and Singh, L. 2012. The Asian Century beckons. The Canberra Times. Available at:

<http://www.canberratimes.com.au/opinion/the-asian-century-beckons-20120424-1xj5f.html> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

McCutcheon, P. 2012. Are foreign farm investors friend or foe? Queensland, Australia. Metzstein, S. 2012. Doctor Who. Dinosaurs on a Spaceship.

Monica, M. 2012. Asia: dawn of a new century. East Asia Forum. Available at:

http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/06/25/asia-dawn-of-a-new-century/ [Accessed: 18

September 2012].

Obama, B. 2011. House of Representatives, Address by the President of the United States of

America. Speech. Available at


<http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/genpdf/chamber/hansardr/15888e39-7a11-4ca2-9456- f088c9812ef0/0006/hansard_frag.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf> [Accessed: 18 September


Sedghi, A. 2012. China GDP: how it has changed since 1980 | News | guardian.co.uk. Datablog - The Guardian. Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/mar/23/china- gdp-since-1980> [Accessed: 25 September 2012].

Smith, D. 2012. A Fair Balance. Dick Smith’s Forbidden Ideas 1(1), p. 7.

Sommer, T. 2006. Is the 21st Century going to be the Asian Century. . Available at:

<http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_070_078.pdf> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

Swan, W. 2012. Foreign Investment Decision [Online]. Available at:

<http://ministers.treasury.gov.au/wmsDisplayDocs.aspx?doc=pressreleases/2012/079.htm&pag eID=003&min=wms&Year=&DocType=0> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

Tarica, E. 2012. Mute Nation faces the Asian Century. The Age. Available at:


23ker.html> [Accessed: 23 September 2012].

Taylor, V.L. 2012. New rules for the Asian Century? East Asia Forum. Available at:

<http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/04/30/new-rules-for-the-asian-century/> [Accessed: 18

September 2012].

Wikipedia 2010. File:GDP Real Growth.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [Online]. Available at: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GDP_Real_Growth.svg> [Accessed: 23 September



Black Tea: making a single good cup – a “how to” guide

The brewing of tea is both an art and a science. George Orwell presented us with his own eleven golden rules, and much scientific study has been applied to the addition of boiling or near boiling water to dried leaves which have been transported thousands of kilometres. People become passionate and worked up about their tea-brewing methods, but in essence the addition to leaves of water is a simple act, which, if done properly, will yield good results every time.

It must be noted that there are very few detailed recipes that have been published for simple, old-fashioned tea. Orwell’s rules are in a class of their own. Not even Esquire’s Handbook for Hosts, boasting recipes for 316 “tantalizing” food recipes and 608 “Esquire-tested drinks” contains any mention of tea (Esquire, 1953). The “Every-day Cook-book and Enyclopedia of Practical Recipes”, by Miss E. Neill has only eleven brief lines on the making of tea, despite boasting to be “economical, reliable and excellent” (Neill, 1889). It is as though it is assumed the knowledge of tea is common, and it doesn’t have to be written about.

This essay deals only with the preparation of black tea, as the preparation for green tea is slightly different. Both teas come from the same plant—the difference lies in the processing of the leaves (Martin, 2007). However, black tea is what many refer to as “normal tea” (Faubert, 2009). Ms Neill, in her “Every-day Cook-book and Enyclopedia of Practical Recipes”, says that preparing black and green tea is the same (1889), however, this is not true. When preparing green tea, the water is not boiled, and only heated to around 80 degrees Celsius before being added to the leaves (How to Make Green Tea, 2011). Black tea is my personal preference, and these are instructions for its preparation.

I employ the aid of a modern convenience: the tea-bag. Orwell declared that there should be, “No strainers, muslin bags or other devices to imprison the tea” (Orwell, 1946), however the modern tea-bag isn’t a sickly, dripping muslin bag, but a device that can be relied upon to make tea brewing clean, simple and still produce good results.

The choice of black tea is entirely personal. Myriad varieties greet you if you care to visit the supermarket aisles, and personal preference will have to be relied on to make the decision.

First, you must assemble the instruments: the electric kettle; a teaspoon; and a cup or mug. The first two items are self-explanatory, however the cup needs thought. An old-fashioned style cup and saucer is appropriate, but a sturdy, thick mug with a good handle is the thing you need. A thin dainty cup is fine if you wish to discuss fashion and the social pages, but a mug is the modern choice of someone who would like to have a good cup of tea.

Secondly, assemble the ingredients: water; the tea-bag of your choice; and your favoured condiments. Condiments could quite possibly include salt and pepper, but the usual tea taste destroyers are sugar, honey, milk and cream.

Now, “put the kettle on”, as they say. Fill the kettle with fresh, cold water from a tap to maximum fill level as indicated within the kettle by a line or marker. Then, plug the kettle in to a power socket, and switch the socket and then the kettle on. Now that the water is being boiled, you have enough time to prepare the rest of the tea-brewing operation.

Set the cup or mug on a firm, flat surface. Place the tea-bag at the bottom, and wrap the cardboard tab and string in and around the handle of the mug. This prevents the tea-bag from being lost in the bottom of a scaldingly hot cup of tea, impossible to retrieve.

When the water boils, take the kettle to the mug and pour straight into the mug. Do not wait for the water to settle or cool. The water must be boiling when it begins its reaction with the black tea (Orwell, 1946). Without doing anything, let the tea-bag rest at the bottom of the mug in the water for twenty to thirty seconds.

Unwrap the cardboard tab and string of the tea-bag from around the mug or cup handle, and raise and lower the tea-bag, via the cardboard tag attached to the string, in and out of the water. Continue with this oscillating action for about ten seconds.

Add your sweeteners—sugar, honey, etc—with the aid of the teaspoon; which acts both as a carrier and a standard measure. Then, still using the teaspoon, stir your sweeteners into the water.

Orwell says that true tea-lovers don’t use sweeteners to “mask and destroy the taste of their tea” (1946)—so it is perfectly acceptable to ignore the previous step.

Remove the tea-bag. The cardboard tab attached to the string which is, in turn, attached to the tea-bag makes this process very simple. Holding the tea bag above the mug by the tab, use your index finger and thumb to squeeze the water out of the tea-bag at the sides, letting it drop back into the mug. Dispose of your tea-bag thoughtfully, either in waste to landfill or an appropriate compost bin.

Stir your tea once again with the tea-spoon.

Add your “condiments”. Add your milk and cream now, and stir once more with the teaspoon.

There are many who suggest that you should put your milk or cream in first, before the boiling the water and the tea-bag; however it is easier to judge how much milk or cream you require if you add it in after the tea (Orwell, 1946).

Lastly, remove the teaspoon—adding it to the washing up pile or putting it in the cutlery holder in the dishwasher—and your tea is ready.

Take the first sip carefully, as, if you have completed these instructions promptly, your tea should still be very hot, the way that it should be. You won’t want to ruin the entire cup by having to deal with a burnt tongue caused by the first mouthful.

Your tea is there to be enjoyed, and don’t take many little sips, but decent mouthfuls—the only way to truly appreciate the flavour of the tea.

The science of tea brewing has many different schools of thought, and the art has many disciplines (Goodwin, 2007). However, the creation of a simple and easy cup of tea doesn’t require articles published in leading scientific journals, or artistic peer assessment. It needs common sense and simple practice.

A warm comforting cup of tea should be both a pleasure to drink and a pleasure to make. All it needs is boiling water, a tea-bag and a cup or mug, plus the comforting sweeteners some require. Don’t overcomplicate tea, and you’ll be sure to enjoy it.

Esquire’s Handbook for Hosts, 1953, Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, New York.

Faubert, N, 2009, Black Tea: the So-called Normal Tea, Examiner.com, viewed 4 April 2013, <http://www.examiner.com/article/black-tea-the-so-called-normal-tea>.

Flickety, L, et al., c. 2012, How to Make Green Tea, WikiHow, viewed 4 April 2013, <http://www.wikihow.com/make-green-tea>.

Goodwin, L, 2007, How to Brew Tea, VeeTea, accessed 4 April 2013, <http://www.veetea.com/site/articles/how-to-brew-tea>.

How to Prepare Green Tea, 2011, Green Tea Base, accessed 4 April 2013, <http://www.greenteabase.com/how-to-prepare-green-tea>.

Martin, L, 2007, Tea: The Drink that Changed the World, Tuttle Publishing, Vermont.

Neill, E., 1889, Every-day Cook-book and Enyclopedia of Practical Recipes, Examiner Press, San Francisco; available at <http://archive.org/details/everydaycookbook00neiliala>, accessed 13 March 2013.

Orwell, G., 1946, January 12, “A Nice Cup of Tea”, Evening Standard.

The Common Sense Cookery Book, 1982, Angus & Robertson, Sydney.


A Vision, A Reality – and a Future

What kind of stir would be caused today if a nation announced that it was holding a competition to design a city, and that they were going to build it from scratch?
Would any nation even consider it, even as a joke?
Australia did consider it in 1911 and Walter Burley Griffin won the international competition to design a capital city, with help from his wife, Marion Mahony Griffin.
What resulted was a city of tree-lined avenues, impressive buildings housing national institutions, and large, slow magnificent roundabouts.
People may criticise Canberra for its shortcomings and its apparent lack of soul, but it is a time like this—100 years to the day since Canberra was named and the foundation stone laid—when we are given the opportunity to praise. To be thankful for our small, wonderful, bush capital.
We, the young, may dream of one day moving away from Black Mountain Tower, the Cotter, Parliament House and Lake Burley Griffin; but that shouldn’t stop us appreciating Canberra while we’re here.
We’re an educated population of a beautiful city, one with golden sun rises over our artificial lake. We have a small city, one that doesn’t sprawl on forever in crazy blocks and suburbs.
Our city, our Canberra, was built with a plan—a plan that held us, which at the time was simply the “future”, in mind.
Perhaps our city doesn’t have a soul, as many of our interstate critics suggest—but we have something that they don’t have in their large, congested cities. We have a shared, connected sense of pride. Every Canberran has a reason to be proud of their slice of Canberra; and every young Canberran like you or me has the opportunity to leave their mark on the city as it heads into its second century. Canberra is whatever we want to make of it.
We are able to shape which direction it heads in, we are able to guide it into the future. Canberra belongs to the future.
Canberra was once a vision, it was a dream. Stemmed from the disagreement between Sydney and Melbourne over who should be the seat of government, Canberra has grown into one of those rare cities that has something for every-one. One of those cities which we are all able to share and celebrate.
This article first appeared in “The Student’s Standard”, a student newspaper at Orana Steiner School in Canberra, Australia. Jasper Lindell is the editor.
It later appeared in the Orana Steiner School publication, "Orana Seasons".